Now Hiring: Are you an experienced and enthusiastic java developer?


Exploring Virtual Threads in Java


Exploring Virtual Threads in Java

Java 19 introduces a fresh addition called virtual threads, which serve as a lightweight alternative to platform threads, allowing you to enhance your application’s performance and scalability.

Understanding Virtual Threads

Virtual threads resemble platform threads, but they are managed by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) rather than the operating system. This distinction makes them significantly lighter, enabling the JVM to optimize resource utilization more effectively.

Functionality of Virtual Threads

Virtual threads employ cooperative multitasking, wherein they voluntarily relinquish control to the JVM when encountering blocking operations like system calls or I/O operations. By doing so, the JVM can schedule other virtual threads for execution.

Advantages of Virtual Threads

Virtual threads offer several advantages over platform threads, including:

  • Lightweight Nature: Virtual threads are much lighter, leading to improved application performance and scalability.
  • Efficient Resource Utilization: The JVM can optimize resource usage more efficiently when managing virtual threads.
  • Scalability: Virtual threads can effortlessly handle increased concurrent requests.

Limitations of Virtual Threads

Despite their benefits, virtual threads have a few limitations, including:

  • Limited Operation Support:Certain operations are not compatible with virtual threads. For instance, creating child threads or joining with other threads is not possible.
  • Increased Code Complexity: Working with virtual threads requires understanding their functioning and their interaction with other parts of your application, which can introduce complexity.

Determining Appropriate Use Cases for Virtual Threads

Virtual threads are well-suited for applications seeking performance and scalability improvements, particularly those heavily reliant on I/O operations.

Below is a simple example demonstrating the usage of virtual threads in Java:

public class VirtualThreadExample {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        // Create a new virtual thread pool.

        ExecutorService executorService = Executors.newVirtualThreadPool();

        // Submit a task to the virtual thread pool.

        executorService.submit(() -> {

            System.out.println("Hello, world!");


        // Wait for the task to complete.


        executorService.awaitTermination(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);



Executing this code will produce the following output:

Hello, world!

The `Executors.newVirtualThreadPool()` method generates a new virtual thread pool with the default number of threads. The `submit()` method assigns a task to the virtual thread pool. The `shutdown()` method signals the virtual thread pool to stop accepting new tasks, and the `awaitTermination()` method waits for the virtual thread pool to complete all its tasks.

Another example

public class VirtualThreadExample {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create a new thread pool with 10 threads
        ExecutorService executorService = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(10);

        // Create 100 virtual threads
        for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
            executorService.submit(new Runnable() {
                public void run() {
                    // Do some work
                    System.out.println("Running virtual thread " + i);

        // Shutdown the thread pool

In Conclusion

Java 19 introduces virtual threads, an innovative feature capable of enhancing application performance and scalability. Particularly beneficial for applications heavily utilizing I/O operations, virtual threads provide a lightweight solution for concurrent execution.

Leave your thought here

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *